This slim volume contains the first ever printed reference to Shakespeare and shows that by 1592 he was already envied by other playwrights. The book is alleged to be by the playwright Robert Greene, a graduate of both Oxford and Cambridge. It was supposedly written on his deathbed and includes public criticism of his various enemies, including Shakespeare, whom he calls ‘an absolute Johannes fac totum’ (or Jack-of-all-trades – a reference to the fact that Shakespeare was an actor as well as a playwright). The phrase ‘upstart crow, beautified with our feathers’ seems to be an accusation of plagiarism, and a criticism of Shakespeare as someone who had not attended university. The description of Shakespeare having a ‘Tygers hart wrapt in a Players hyde’ is a reference to a line from Henry VI, Part 3, where Margaret of Anjou (who also appears in Richard III) is addressed, ‘O tiger’s heart wrapp’d in a woman’s hide!’ (1.4.137).