Independent research commissioned by Action for Children, the Children’s Society and the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children aiming to estimate the number of vulnerable children and families in Britain, and the impact of the current economic context on them. The research seeks to measure the number of families with children in Britain who are most vulnerable to adverse economic conditions and estimate how these families will be affected over the next few years by the changes to tax and benefits, cuts to public services and the on-going effects of the post-2008 economic downturn. The resulting evidence shows that the number of vulnerable families with children is often understated and forecasts that their number will grow substantially in coming years. It also shows that measures put in place to mitigate the impact of the recession on vulnerable families with children are insufficient. These findings underline the urgent need to protect children from the impact of austerity and for particular consideration to be given to the needs of the most vulnerable children and families in our society.