Frances Burney kept a selection of her literary manuscripts in a battered brown envelope labelled ‘old composition odds’. As well as a draft introduction to her novel Cecilia, it might also have held these poems from Evelina (1778), which are bound in the same volume. There is a loving ode to her father, and two poems supposedly written by her character Mr Macartney. There are also two contemporary reviews of Evelina and Cecilia, carefully copied from periodicals. Together, they give us a glimpse of Burney’s first experiences as a professional author, treading a precarious path between deference to men and female independence.
Early reviews of Evelina
Three months after Evelina was published anonymously in January 1778, the first review appeared in the April Monthly Review. The reviewer pronounced the novel ‘sprightly, entertaining, & agreeable’, but questioned Burney’s characterisation of the boorish Captain Mirvan (f. 5r).
The second review shown here was written when Burney was famous, and it is notably more gendered in its response. While admiring her ‘genius’, ‘delicate humour and satire’, it describes her as ‘the fair Author’, commends the ‘modesty’ of her expression, and admits she is ‘not inferiour to [Henry] Fielding himself’ (f. 6r).
‘Oh Author of my Being’
When Burney wrote Evelina, she concealed it from her father Dr Charles Burney. Yet – perhaps through a sense of guilt ‒ she dedicated the novel to him, with an ode expressing her ‘filial love’. It was only six months later, when he read the Monthly Review, that he realised she was the writer and his eyes were filled with tears.
This manuscript contains two versions of the ode. The first is a draft, hastily scribbled at ‘4 in the morng’ (f. 74r‒v). It experiments with different ways of addressing her father ‒ ‘Friend of my Soul & Parent of my Heart’ or ‘Author of my being’. The other is a copy of the final published version, where Burney has fixed on ‘Author of my being’. The choice of the term ‘author’ suggests respect for her father as a kind of godlike creator, but it also subtly highlights her own role as an author.
Mr Macartney’s poems from Evelina
The final poems are ‘unfinished verses’ attributed to Mr Macartney, Evelina’s brooding half-brother. His first ode provokes Evelina’s sympathy ‒ ‘O Life! Thou lingering dream of grief’ (f. 77r‒v). The second one, written in Bristol, focusses only on her ‘beauteous face’ (f. 77v).
- Full title:
- BARRETT COLLECTION. Vol. VII (ff. 173). Literary manuscripts of Frances d'Arblay.
- Manuscript / Letter
- Frances Burney, Also known as Fanny Burney
- Usage terms
Public Domain in most countries other than the UK.
- Held by
- British Library
- Egerton MS 3696
- Article by:
- Louise Curran
- Rise of the novel, Language and ideas, Politeness, sensibility and sentimentalism
Louise Curran explores the real and fictional letters published in the 18th century, from the correspondence of Alexander Pope and Ignatius Sancho to Samuel Richardson's hugely popular epistolary novel Pamela and the works it inspired.
- Article by:
- John Mullan
- Rise of the novel, Politeness, sensibility and sentimentalism
John Mullan explains how the novel took shape in the 18th century with the works of Daniel Defoe, Samuel Richardson, Henry Fielding and Laurence Sterne, and the ways in which the book industry both shaped and responded to the new genre.
- Article by:
- Chloe Wigston Smith
- Rise of the novel, Politeness, sensibility and sentimentalism, Satire and humour, Gender and sexuality
Frances Burney’s Evelina unveils the dizzying and dangerous social whirl of Georgian London, where reputations and marriages are there to be made and broken. Dr Chloe Wigston Smith investigates Burney’s critique of fashion culture and the demands it places on women, in a novel that prizes feminine resilience.