Alliances with of the non-Russian population of the former Empire were an important factor in the ‘Russian’ Civil War. This recruitment poster, aimed at Caucasian Muslims, is in four languages: Russian, Arabic and the local languages Circassian and Nogay. It invites volunteers to join the Mountain-Muslim Cavalry Brigade under Colonel Pukovsky’s command, which became part of the Armed Forces of South Russia by 1920. Andrei (born Shir-Khan) Berlandnik-Pukovsky survived the war and from 1927 lived in France where he died in 1964.