This project investigates if and how out of school activities affect primary school children’s attainment. Educational inequalities between children from different backgrounds at the end of primary school are pronounced. The study investigates how out of school activities change as children grow, and how this change may vary for children with different characteristics and circumstances, including ethnicity, social class and family income. It will then look at how these different patterns are linked with end of primary school results. Do they help narrow the attainment gap or simply reinforce existing socio-economic differences? In this briefing paper the authors present results from analysis exploring how children can be grouped into distinct categories based on what they do outside lesson time in their primary school years.