This photograph shows Jamaican journalist and activist Amy Ashwood Garvey at a demonstration organised by the International African Friends of Abyssinia (IAFA) in Trafalgar Square in 1935.
The International African Friends of Abyssinia
The IAFA was a Pan-African organisation established in response to the Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1934. Its founding members included C L R James, Amy Ashwood Garvey, Chris Jones (aka Braithwaite), Jomo Kenyatta and George Padmore, who resolved to support Ethiopia’s freedom from colonial powers.
The campaigning of the IAFA alongside other Pan-African groups eventually led to the organisation of the Fifth Pan-African Congress in Manchester.
 Hakim Adi, Pan-Africanism: A History (London: 2018).
- Article by:
- Hakim Adi
- Authors, artists and activists, Waves of history
At the turn of the 20th century, colonialism meant that colonial subjects did not have the right to determine their own future. Hakim Adi introduces us to Pan-Africanism and some of the key figures and organisations who campaigned against colonialism and racism before the outbreak of World War Two.
- Article by:
- Rachel Douglas
- Authors, artists and activists
Rachel Douglas traces the evolution of C L R James’s ground breaking work on the Haitian Revolution, which developed in the form of articles, a published history and stage plays.