The Allies of the tsarist regime produced propaganda such as these posters, aimed at the Russians. This propaganda stressed that the peace treaty with Germany (the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk), and signed by the Bolshevik Government, would not bring any benefit to the Russian people.

Russia’s democratic future should be associated with open relations with the British, French and American ‘democracies’ rather than with secret treaties with the German, Austrian and Turkish ‘tyrannies’ (image 1).

The tone of the message is defensive rather than mobilising (image 3). It reads: ‘We are here to help Russia to restore its unity and fulfil ambitions to become a democracy. We need Russia. Russia needs us!’.

The Allies’ broad appeal to the ‘Russian comrades’ or ‘citizens of Russia’ (image 5), although was aimed at a wide audience, most likely missed its direct target.

Image 6 implies that the celebrations in the brightly-lit room will not warm up the miserable folk who are freezing outside, any more than Russia’s settlement with Germany will help the suffering Russian people. Image 7 meanwhile, depicts an eagle wearing the German crown flying over blood-stained land on which the word ‘Freedom’ is written.