Jamaican-born Marcus Mosiah Garvey Jr. (1887–1940) founded and led the largest mass movement in Black history: the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA).
Garvey first left Jamaica in 1910 and spent formative years in London and the United States – eventually calling all three places home. Established in New York in 1914, the UNIA preached a ‘gospel’ of racial pride, and economic and cultural independence for all people of African descent. At its peak in 1920 the UNIA had millions of members and hundreds of chapters across the USA, UK, Caribbean, Canada and Africa. This leaflet details a speech given by Garvey at the Royal Albert Hall, London, in June 1928.
Garvey’s ideas strongly influenced Black politics in the 20th century including Black Power and national liberation movements, as well as Rastafarianism.
- Article by:
- Hakim Adi
- Waves of history, Authors, artists and activists
At the turn of the 20th century, colonialism meant that colonial subjects did not have the right to determine their own future. Hakim Adi introduces us to Pan-Africanism and some of the key figures and organisations who campaigned against colonialism and racism before the outbreak of World War Two.