This is a manuscript notebook compiled by Sir Walter Raleigh (1554–1618) during his imprisonment for treason in the Tower of London. Raleigh occupied many roles throughout his life, but he is perhaps best known as a famous Elizabethan explorer, colonist and adventurer.

The book was written and drafted in Raleigh’s own hand, and contains several beautifully detailed maps with extensive annotations. Raleigh had a large library in the Tower, and from about 1607 he used this notebook to alphabetically record geographical and historical (biblical) information from his research. These notes were later published in History of the World (1614), which was suppressed by King James I (1566–1625) and the Archbishop of Canterbury for its critical view of the monarchy. The printed volume was one of the most published and admired books of the politically turbulent 17th century: Oliver Cromwell (1599–1658) is known to have read and recommended it to his son.

On the final page is a poem, written by Raleigh, which has been identified as one of the ‘Cynthia poems’ composed for Queen Elizabeth I (1533–1603).

What are the ‘Cynthia poems’?

Raleigh wrote a series of love poems for Queen Elizabeth, which he addressed to the romanticised pseudonym ‘Cynthia’. Cynthia is another name for Diana, Roman goddess of the hunt and wild animals.

The Cynthia poems adhere to the courtly love tradition, in which a male writer pines for an idealised woman while expressing his undying love and devotion to her. The courtly love conceit was central to Elizabeth’s court, just as it had been to Anne Boleyn’s, and required all aspiring courtiers to be witty and romantic towards their Queen both in person and on paper.

The collection of Cynthia poems consists of five autograph manuscripts. Four were written by Raleigh in a bid to regain royal favour after his scandalous secret marriage to Elizabeth’s Gentlewoman of the Privy Chamber Elizabeth (‘Bess’) Throckmorton, and are held at Hatfield House (former residence of Robert Cecil, Elizabeth’s Secretary of State). The fifth poem is written in Raleigh’s hand on the last page of this volume, and was rediscovered in the 1950s. The Cynthia poem digitised here is titled ‘Now we have present made’, and was probably composed to accompany a gift for Elizabeth.