Commedia dell’arte figures by Maurice Sand, 1860


This richly illustrated book is a survey of character types in commedia dell’arte – a form of bawdy, physical comedy well known in early modern Europe. The book was produced by the French artist, Maurice Sand, a pseudonym for Maurice Dudevant (1823–1889). It has 50 vibrant engravings by Alexandre Manceau, with dates showing when each character was popular. There is also a preface by Maurice’s mother, the writer George Sand.

What is commedia dell’arte?

Originating in Renaissance Italy, but achieving popularity across Europe, commedia dell’arte is a special type of improvised comedy. It involves stock characters – comic servants, young lovers, self-important pedants and soldiers – each one recognisable by stylised costumes, masks and exaggerated gestures. Troupes of Italian players may have travelled through London in the 16th century, and Shakespeare drew on the tradition in comedies such as Twelfth Night, The Taming of the Shrew, As You Like It and The Tempest.

Where are the Pantaloons in Shakespeare?

The absurd, old Pantaloon figure (described more fully below) is the commedia stereotype most frequently mentioned by Shakespeare. In The Taming of the Shrew, Bianca’s elderly suitor Gremio is introduced as a ‘pantaloon’ in the Stage Directions (1.1.47) and later (3.1.37). In As You Like It, Jaques’s famous speech on the seven ages of man represents the sixth age with an image of the ‘lean and slipper’d pantaloon’ (2.7.158–60).

Many of Shakespeare’s clown-figures also show characteristics of commedia dell’arte zanies – poor buffoons or jesters, who often swapped places with their masters, or imitated their masters’ actions in an absurd way.

What images are shown here?

  1. Title page of the book.
  2. Frontispiece showing a woman personifying Comedy, with a list of the characters explored in this book.
  3. Harlequin, 1570: a mischievous, clown character wearing multi-coloured tights and carrying a magic wand (Vol. 1, p. 67).
  4. Punchinello, 1685: a hook-nosed, hump-backed character, who later starred in the violent English puppet show, ‘Punch and Judy’ (Vol. 1, p. 121).
  5. Punchinello, 1700: (Vol. 1, p. 129).
  6. Il Capitan Spavento, 1577: a swaggering soldier character, whose name means Captain Fright (Vol. 1, p. 175).
  7. Il Capitan Spezzafer, 1668: another Capitano, whose name means Iron Breaker (Vol. 1, p. 193).
  8. Pagliaccio, 1600: a zany, clown figure (Vol. 1, p. 237).
  9. Pantaloon, 1600: an elderly and foolish man who lusts after a younger woman. He is known by his red costume and skullcap, Turkish slippers and pantaloons (Vol. 2, p. 1).
  10. Isabella, 1600: the best known of the young female lovers or innamorata (Vol. 2, p. 175).
  11. Coviello, 1550: another zany character who danced and played the mandolin (Vol. 2, p. 285).

Full title:
Masques et Bouffons. Comédie italienne. Texte et dessins par Maurice Sand. Gravures par A. Manceau. Préface par George Sand.
Book / Octavo / Illustration / Image
Maurice Sand [pseudonym], Maurice Dudevant, Alexandre Manceau [engraver], George Sand
Usage terms
Public Domain
Held by
British Library

Full catalogue details

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