History and learning

From the development of the French language to the T-O map of the world, explore the spread and exchange of medieval culture before 1200.

Law

Legal manuscripts in England and France

Article by:
Joanna Frońska

The study of law in medieval Europe was revitalised in the 12th century. Joanna Frońska explores the production of legal works and their use by scholarly communities in this period.

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French

The French language before 1200

Article by:
Hannah Morcos

Hannah Morcos looks at how the vernacular of northern France evolved from a regional spoken language to a cross-European written medium between the 8th and 12th centuries.

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Hebrew in Christian Manuscripts

Hebrew in Christian manuscripts of the early Middle Ages

Article by:
Damian Fleming

In this survey Damian Fleming explores the early medieval Christian experience of Hebrew as a sacred and practical language.

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Manuscript production in the abbeys of Normandy, 700–1200

Manuscript production in the abbeys of Normandy

Article by:
Stéphane Lecouteux

Through the evidence of manuscript production Stéphane Lecouteux traces the history of Normandy and the region’s close ties with England before and after the Norman Conquest of 1066.

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Medieval Libraries

Medieval monastic libraries

Article by:
Alison Ray

Through the evidence of surviving manuscripts, Alison Ray explores the collections of medieval libraries and how these libraries grew and changed over time.

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Mapping the World

Mapping the world

Article by:
Hanna Vorholt

The idea of place in the early Middle Ages transcended space and time. Hanna Vorholt discusses the significance of maps in the medieval world.

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Circulation

The circulation of manuscripts before 1200

Article by:
Samu Niskanen

Samu Niskanen discusses the movement of manuscript texts and letter collections between England and France in the early Middle Ages.

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History in England and France

History in England and France: Ralph of Diceto and his sources

Article by:
Laura Cleaver

Using the works of Ralph de Diceto, Laura Cleaver examines how the study of history in the Middle Ages engaged with contemporary attitudes and politics.

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Classical Past

The classical past

Article by:
Cillian O’Hogan

Cillian O’Hogan offers an introduction to the range of classical works that shaped medieval thought on literature and scientific learning.

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Church Fathers

Works of the Church Fathers

Article by:
Chantry Westwell

The writings of the Church Fathers formed the central core of books copied and owned by medieval monasteries after the Bible. Chantry Westwell provides an introduction to these formative works of the early Christian Church and to the manuscript copies produced.

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Early Latin versions of the Legend of King Arthur

Early Latin versions of the Legend of King Arthur

Article by:
Chantry Westwell

Chantry Westwell traces the ninth-century origins of the Legend of King Arthur and explores the growth of the bestselling tale in medieval England and France.

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Historians of the Early Middle Ages

Historians of the early Middle Ages

Article by:
Jaakko Tahkokallio

Throughout human history, one of the main functions of story-telling has been to create and strengthen shared identities that hold communities together. Jaakko Tahkokallio explores the historical works of leading medieval writers.

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Medical Knowledge

Medical knowledge in the early medieval period

Article by:
Taylor McCall

Understanding of the human body and the treatment of illness in the Middle Ages derived from the works of classical authors as well as contemporary scholars. Taylor McCall examines popular medical texts and their circulation before 1200.

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Science and Mathematics

Medieval science and mathematics

Article by:
Taylor McCall

Taylor McCall discusses early medieval approaches to various types of knowledge we might consider today to be ‘scientific’, as well as those subjects taught in the earliest universities, including mathematics and astronomy.

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Old English after the Norman Conquest

Article by:
Calum Cockburn

Calum Cockburn explores what happened to the writing of the vernacular after William the Conqueror’s invasion in 1066.

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The Latin Middle Ages

Article by:
Cillian O’Hogan

Why was Latin so important in the Middle Ages? Cillian O’Hogan examines the development of medieval Latin and how it survived the collapse of the Roman Empire.

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Glossed Psalters

Article by:
Tuija Ainonen, Kathleen Doyle

Manuscripts containing commentaries on the book of Psalms were widely circulated during the medieval period. Tuija Ainonen and Kathleen Doyle examine some of these glossed volumes.

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Further themes

Art and illumination

Learn more about manuscript art from the illumination and decoration found in medieval books.

History and learning

Explore the spread and exchange of medieval culture and language before 1200.

Science and nature

From medical surgery to the stars of the constellations, what were the scientific works of the early Middle Ages and how were they transmitted?

Making manuscripts

Learn more about book production in the Middle Ages and how to illuminate a manuscript today.

Christian religion and belief

Discover how religious works were transmitted in the Middle Ages.

Medieval manuscript collections today

Learn more about modern care and research of medieval manuscripts.