The material in this web presentation is reproduced here with permission of the author and the Royal Institution.

It was first published as “The Language of Birds” in Proceedings of the Royal Institution (vol. 55, pp. 249-303) and the full text can also be found on the UK Web Archive.

The Wildlife Sound Trust provided funding to support the production of these webpages.

A special thanks to all the sound recordists who kindly gave permission for us to put samples of their sounds on this website.