Most sermons (or homilies) in this collection are copies of earlier ones in Old English. But this one is different. It is an English translation of a Latin sermon in which we can see many of the changes that signal the end of Old English. The rhythm and pattern of the sentences are beginning to sound distinctly modern. That is why linguists have called it the first text in Middle English. The sermon was given by Ralph d’Escures, Archbishop of Canterbury, in the 12th century.
The homily begins 'Se godspellere Lucas sægð on þyssen godspelle' ('The evangelist Luke says in this gospel'). Word order is identical to present-day English, and remains so across much of the text. The origins of the word ‘gospel’ would have been clearer in the 12th century: god (good) combined with spel (news or story).
- Full title:
- A collection of Homilies; Isidore of Seville, Synonyma; Boethius, De consolatione philosophie (excerpts); Fides sancti Ambrosii episcopi; Fides sancti Gregorii pape; Fides beati Gregorii Neocesariae ; Pelagius, Libellus fidei calculation for the year 912.
- Mid 9th century-12th century
- Usage terms
Public Domain in most countries other than the UK.
- Held by
- British Library
- Cotton Vespasian D. xiv
- Article by:
- David Crystal
- Language and voice
David Crystal explains how Middle English developed from Old English, changing its grammar, pronunciation and spelling and borrowing words from French and Latin.
- Article by:
- Sarah Salih
- Faith and religion
Sarah Salih explores how medieval Europeans memorialised the lives of real and fictional Christian saints, transforming them into the superheroes and celebrities of the Middle Ages.