This page of the Duke of Sussex's German Pentateuch shows the kind of marginal decoration often painted in Hebrew medieval manuscripts, especially in Germany. The strange beasts here are outlined in minute Hebrew lettering. As a whole, the richly-decorated book is a fine example of the South German style of illumination, with its rich, contrasting colours and exaggerated, often strange-looking faces and animals, and micrographic adornments such as these odd marginal creatures.
What is the Pentateuch?
The Pentateuch is part of the Torah, one of the three main sections of the Bible in Jewish tradition, and also the most sacred. It comprises the first five books of the Old Testament, sometimes known as the Five Books of Moses, as they are believed to have been first written down by Moses at divine dictation.
The five books making up the Torah are Be-reshit, Shemot, Va-Yikra, Be-Midbar and Devarim, which in the English Bible correspond to Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.
The Hebrew titles derive from the first characteristic word appearing in each book, while the name used in the English Bible (usually of Greek origin) describe the central theme dealt with in each book.
Who created this book?
The Duke of Sussex's German Pentateuch was written and illuminated by a scribe-artist known as Hayyim, working in southern Germany around 1300. Apart from the five books of the Old Testament, it contains the Aramaic translation (Targum Onkelos), the Five Scrolls, and Haftarot (readings from the Prophets). The manuscript takes its name from the Duke of Sussex (1773–1843): he was the book's last owner before it became part of the British Museum collection in 1844.
Each of the five Old Testament books is preceded by an illuminated opening word set in a full-page miniature (eg digitised image 1), and four of the Five Scrolls – Megilot (namely, the Song of Songs, Ruth, Ecclesiastes and Esther) open with a smaller ornamented panel.
What are those animals doing there?
Hybrids, legendary beasts, griffons, dragons and other imaginary creatures were often painted in Hebrew medieval illuminated manuscripts, particularly in Germany. The imagery was probably modelled on contemporary Latin bestiaries.
In this example (digitised image 2) the marginal figure is outlined in micrography, a Jewish scribal practice using minute lettering to create abstract and figurative designs. In medieval Hebrew manuscripts, the masoretic notes (advice on pronunciation and intonation for those reading the text aloud) were the most commonly used texts in artistic micrography. Penned close to the textual columns, these were complex annotations on the biblical text, which kept it intact and safeguarded its correct transmission over the centuries. On this page the masoretic notes were penned in both plain script and decorative micrography.
To compare how Jewish and Christian manuscripts approached marginal decorations see the Luttrell Psalter.
- Full title:
- Torah: Pentateuch (aka the 'Duke of Sussex's German Pentateuch')
- 1300–1324, Germany
- Manuscript / Illumination / Illuminated manuscript
- Hayyim [scribe-artist]
- Usage terms
Public Domain in most countries other than the UK.
- Held by
- British Library
- Add MS 15282
- Article by:
- Daniel Isaac
- Judaism, Living Texts
The Hebrew language is central to Judaism but several other languages have also been used in biblical translations and interpretations. Daniel Isaacs looks at the languages of Aramaic, Judaeo-Arabic, Djudezmo and Yiddish and their relationships to the Jewish sacred text.
- Article by:
- Ilana Tahan
- Illuminated texts, Judaism
Using a varied collection of Hebrew manuscripts, Dr Ilana Tahan explores the illumination of Jewish biblical manuscripts, looking at the religious grounds for artistic expression in the Bible, and the differences in styles between manuscripts produced in the Near East and those in Europe.
- Article by:
- Kristin Phelps, Dr Adi Keinan-Schoonbaert
- New technologies and digital research
Kristin Phelps and Dr Adi Keinan-Schoonbaert look at 3D imaging at the British Library.