This 1930 edition of Hamlet, illustrated by Edward Gordon Craig, is often regarded as the most bold and ambitious example of 20th-century book art. Elegantly put together, with obsessive attention to detail, it uses hand-made paper and decorated binding, fine images and beautiful typefaces to enhance the dramatic effect of Shakespeare’s play.
At the centre of each page is the text of Hamlet, from the second quarto edition (1604–05), interspersed with 80 striking woodcuts designed and carved by Edward Gordon Craig.
In the margins are extracts from two of Shakespeare’s probable sources:
- A Latin Hamlet story by Saxo Grammaticus (starting on p. 4)
- An English translation of the Latin by Oliver Elton, 1894 (p. 5)
- A French Hamlet story by Belleforest , 1582 (p. 56)
- An anonymous English version of Belleforest’s tale, The Hystorie of Hamblet, 1608 (p. 63)
- A booklet of explanatory notes by John Dover Wilson, inserted in a pocket at the back
The meticulous design process was overseen by Count Harry Kressler (1868–1937), director of the famous Cranach-Presse in interwar Weimar Germany. As well as Gordon Craig’s woodcuts, Kressler used a typeface designed by Edward Johnston and a title page cut by Eric Gill. The book was first printed in German in 1928 and in English in 1930. This copy is number 131 of a run of only 300, printed with hand-presses on specially-made paper.
Who was Edward Gordon Craig (1872–1966)?
Craig had extensive experience working on Hamlet, as an actor, theorist, set designer and artist. He was born into a theatrical and creative family – the son of the renowned Shakespearean actor Ellen Terry and the architect Edward William Godwin – though he adopted the name of a Scottish island, Ailsa Craig, rather than taking the name of either parent.
From childhood Craig worked as an actor, playing Hamlet in 1894. He then branched into directing and radical theatre design, producing a powerful, minimalist set for the Moscow Art Theatre’s Hamlet in 1911–12. The small wooden figures used to model these sets became the inspiration for the woodcuts in this edition.
The French and Latin sources – Saxo Grammaticus and Belleforest – reproduced in this edition
The outline of the Hamlet tale first appears in the old, Norse folk-tale of Amleth. This Scandinavian legend was recorded in Latin around 1200 by the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus and first printed in Paris in 1514. It is part of the collection of tales known as Gesta Danorum – a partially mythical history of the Danes.
It is likely that Shakespeare encountered the Amleth legend via an expanded French version, written by François de Belleforest (1530–1583) in his popular Histoires Tragiques (series 3, part 5). This is double the length of Saxo’s version, placing the savage Danish legend within a moral Christian framework. Belleforest strains to justify Amleth’s violence as a form of divine justice against his wicked uncle Fengo. The French writer also develops the role of the beautiful young lady employed to entrap Amleth. She becomes, not just a seducer but a woman more like Ophelia, in her selfless love of Amleth. Significantly also, Belleforest perhaps provides the inspiration for Shakespeare’s ghost through his description of the shade (or in French, ‘ombre’) of Amleth’s father.
- Full title:
- The Tragedie of Hamlet ... Edited by J. Dover Wilson ... from the text of the-Second Quarto ... With which are also printed the Hamlet stories from Saxo Grammaticus and Belleforest and English translations therefrom. Illustrated by Edward Gordon Craig
- 1930, Weimar, Germany
- Book / Woodcut / Illustration / Image
- William Shakespeare, John Dover Wilson [editor], Edward Gordon Craig
- © The Edward Gordon Craig Estate
- Usage terms
- Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial licence
- Held by
- British Library
- Article by:
- Emma Smith
- Tragedies, Power, politics and religion
Emma Smith reads Hamlet as a play obsessed with retrospection, repetition and the theatre of the past.
- Article by:
- Elaine Showalter
- Tragedies, Gender, sexuality, courtship and marriage, Interpretations of ‘madness’
The character of Ophelia has fascinated directors, actresses, writers and painters since she first appeared on stage. Here Elaine Showalter discusses Ophelia's madness as a particularly female malady, showing how from Shakespeare's day to our own Ophelia has been used both to reflect and to challenge evolving ideas about female psychology and sexuality.
- Article by:
- Alice Rylance-Watson
Alice Rylance-Watson tells the story of a late-18th century art venture, the Boydell Shakespeare Gallery, which occasioned some of the most beautiful and iconic paintings of Shakespearean scenes. She discusses the relationship between commerce and fine art, and outlines the important role Boydell's enterprise played in the rise of British bardolatry.