The haggadah is the service book used in Jewish households on Passover Eve to celebrate the Israelites' deliverance from Egyptian enslavement as described in the Book of Exodus. The reading of the haggadah, which literally means ‘narration’ or ‘telling’, conforms with the biblical commandment ‘And you shall tell your son in that day, saying: It is because of that which the LORD did for me when I came forth out of Egypt’ (Exodus 13:8).
Traditionally Jewish families gather together for a special ritual meal called seder meaning ‘order’. During the seder the haggadah is read, providing the structure for the celebration, which is divided into 15 steps. For example, the eighth step involves the eating of bitter herbs, a reminder of the bitter life the Hebrew slaves endured in Egypt.
One of the most cherished texts in Judaism, the haggadah was originally part of the Hebrew daily prayer book, becoming an independent unit around the 13th century CE. Its educational character and the fact that it was specifically intended for use in the home, made it particularly suitable for decoration. Since ancient times the haggadah has thus been one of the most frequently decorated texts in Jewish practice.
Created in Castile around 1300 CE, this Passover Haggadah manuscript includes 66 full-page illustrations which depict episodes from the Book of Exodus, a scene of the binding of Isaac and several others showing preparations for the festival. Probably three artists from the same workshop executed the miniatures which were painted in pastel colour washes and tempera (a fast-drying painting medium) in a Hispano-Moresque style combining Spanish and Moorish motifs (i.e. rooted in Islamic art). The manuscript lacks details about the original commission; therefore the names of the scribe, patron and illustrators who were involved in its production remain unknown.
Browse through the entire manuscript on the Digitised Manuscripts website.
- Article by:
- Katrin Kogman-Appel
- Jewish Liturgy, Illuminations and the art of writing, Jewish communities
‘On this day you shall tell your son: it is because of what the Lord did for me when I went forth from Egypt (Ex. 13:8).’ Professor Katrin Kogman-Appel considers what it was like to celebrate Passover as a 14th-century CE Sephardic family.
- Article by:
- Julie A Harris
- Illuminations and the art of writing
The illuminated Haggadot of medieval Spain are some of the most personal manuscripts made for Jewish patrons in the collection of the British Library. Dr Julie Harris searches for clues on who these splendid manuscripts were commissioned for.
- Article by:
- Dalia-Ruth Halperin
- Illuminations and the art of writing, The Hebrew Bible
Dr Dalia-Ruth Halperin examines figured micrography and the relationship between text and design in this unique Jewish art.