This is the first English edition of the celebrated Essayes by Michel de Montaigne (1533–1592). The collection was first published in French in 1580–88, and translated here by John Florio in 1603. The Essayes cover a dazzling array of subjects from ‘Drunkennesse’ to ‘Smels and odors’, from ‘Friendship’ to ‘Cruelty’, and from ‘Caniballes’ to ‘the ‘education of Children’. The fly-leaf of this copy is tantalisingly signed ‘Willm Shakspere’, though some critics insist that the signature is a forgery. There are various reasons why people have questioned the authenticity of the signature, including the unusual form of the W, which is much larger than in verified Shakespeare autographs; the letter p, which is not typical of the period; and the location of the signature on the flyleaf when ownership marks would more commonly appear on the title page itself.
The inventor of essays
Montaigne is often seen as the inventor of the modern ‘essay’ form. He was the first to use the French word essai – meaning ‘trial’ or ‘attempt’ – to describe a genre of writing which combines rigorous testing of intellectual ideas and a new type of self-exploration. As he says in his letter ‘to the Reader’, ‘it is my selfe I pourtray’ in all my ‘imperfections’. In Shakespeare’s approach to drama, he could be said to reflect this sense of open-mindedness and internal conflict. In his use of soliloquy and dialogue, he shares Montaigne’s willingness to explore diverse perspectives rather than defending a single idea.
Montaigne as a source for The Tempest
Though the signature in this copy may not be genuine, there seems no doubt that Shakespeare read Florio’s version of Montaigne. The Tempest contains clear echoes of Montaigne’s essay ‘Of the Caniballes’ (p. 102). In Gonzalo’s description of his perfect natural commonwealth (2.1. 148–65) there is ‘no kind of traffic’, ‘no name of magistrate’, no ‘riches, poverty / And use of service’.
The essay also raises key questions explored in the play through Shakespeare’s portrayal of Caliban and the Italians on the island. Inspired by reports into the exploration of Brazil, Montaigne celebrates the ‘puritie’ of societies governed by ‘the lawes of nature’ (p. 102). He challenges any clear division between civilised Europeans and so-called ‘savage’ nations, arguing that ‘we exceede them in all kinde of barbarisme’ (p. 104). In ‘prying so narrowly into their faults’, he says, we are ‘blinded’ to our own (p. 104). As Shakespeare seems to suggest in the treachery of his Italian characters – Antonio, Sebastian, Trinculo and Stephano – barbarism is not inherent in one nation or another but a matter of individual behaviour.
- Full title:
- The Essayes, or Morall, Politike, and Millitarie Discourses of Lo: Michaell de Montaigne ... Now done into English by ... John Florio.
- 1603, London
- Book / Folio
- Michel de Montaigne, William Shakespeare, John Florio [translator]
- Usage terms
- Public Domain
- Held by
- British Library
- Article by:
- Andrew Dickson
- Shakespeare’s life and world, Global Shakespeare
Shakespeare set many of his plays in Italy, though he almost certainly never went there. Andrew Dickson assesses how much Shakespeare knew about the country and its people, and describes how the playwright drew from myth and reality to create a rich imaginative space.
- Article by:
- Jyotsna Singh
- Comedies, Ethnicity and identity, Power, politics and religion, Global Shakespeare
Post-colonial readings of The Tempest were inspired by the decolonisation movements of the 1960s and 1970s in Africa, the Caribbean and Latin America. Jyotsna Singh describes how these readings challenge more traditional interpretations of the play, questioning Prospero's ownership of the island and rethinking the role of Caliban.
- Article by:
- Liza Picard
- Shakespeare’s life and world, Elizabethan England
Elizabethan explorers undertook lengthy expeditions to discover new worlds. Liza Picard considers some of the consequences of these expeditions: overseas colonies, imported goods and the slave trade.
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