George Orwell was a diligent diarist, keeping several notebooks to note down his thoughts on current events and record his everyday activities. This political journal, covering the period between May 1940 and August 1941, contains Orwell’s fascinating account of everyday life in London during the Second World War. Rather than writing a chronological narrative of his day, Orwell noted down short meaningful episodes showing how the constant bombing raids transformed the landscape of the city and changed people’s interactions.
Narrating an urban war
In these entries, written between 17 and 24 September 1940, Orwell’s diary often reads like a journalist’s notepad. His purpose seems to be to capture a snapshot of the time he is living in for future generations, or perhaps for later use in one of his works. One single-sentence paragraph succinctly reads: 'Regular features of the time: neatly swept-up piles of glass, litter of stone and splinters of flint, smell of escaping gas, knots of sightseers waiting at the cordons.'
The entries also contain Orwell’s social commentary, supporting the use of empty West End houses for people who had been rendered homeless by the bombing raids. Despite his criticism of Stalinism, Orwell remained a convinced socialist all his life, and believed that the Second World War could become a ‘revolutionary war’: ‘When you see how the wealthy are still behaving, in what is manifestly developing into a revolutionary war, you think of St. Petersburg in 1916’. Orwell believed that Britain would not win the war against Germany without a social revolution, an idea that he developed on his 1941 essay The Lion and the Unicorn: Socialism and the English Genius.
A writer’s diary
One of the most interesting aspects of Orwell’s diaries is the fact that he constantly edited them, typing them up from his manuscript notes and making corrections and additions by hand, some of which can be seen in this extract. It is likely that Orwell intended for his war diaries to be published, although they never appeared in print when he was alive.
- Full title:
- Political diary 1940–41
- 17 September 1940; 1940–41, London
- Manuscript / Typescript / Diary
- George Orwell
- Usage terms
George Orwell: © With kind permission of the estate of the late Sonia Brownell Orwell. You may not use the material for commercial purposes. Please credit the copyright holder when reusing this work.
UCL: © Orwell Archive, UCL Library Special Collections.
- Held by
- UCL Library Special Collections
- Article by:
- Greg Buzwell
- Power and conflict
During the Second World War, Nazi Germany conducted a sustained bombing campaign on cities and towns across Britain. The raids killed 43,000 civilians and lasted for eight months. Here Greg Buzwell examines how novelists have woven the effects of the Blitz into their work, from Graham Greene and Elizabeth Bowen in the 1940s to Sarah Waters in the 21st century.
- Article by:
- John Sutherland
- Power and conflict, Literature 1900–1950
George Orwell’s Animal Farm combines animal fable with political satire targeting Stalinist Russia. John Sutherland describes the novel’s genesis, its struggle to find a publisher, and its eventual success.
- Article by:
- Dr Mercedes Aguirre
- Literature 1900–1950, Power and conflict
Mercedes Aguirre explores how George Orwell rewrote the beast fable for the 20th century in Animal Farm.
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Animal Farm (1945) is a novella by George Orwell. Originally sub-titled A Fairy Story, it is a commentary on the ...