Printed Prayer Sheet


A 10th-century printed prayer sheet with an illustration of Amitābha Buddha.

What is it?

Many rectangular prayer sheets like this one were found among the printed items in a sealed-up cave of the Mogao Buddhist cave complex, near Dunhuang. They generally consist of two parts: the image of a Buddhist deity at the top, and the prayer associated with them underneath. They seem to have been particularly popular objects of devotion for Buddhist practitioners. The reproduction and transmission of Buddha images and Buddhist texts was a sacred and meritorious act. This emphasis on replication greatly benefited from the technology of woodblock printing, and may have, in turn, played a role in its success and encouraged its development in China.

Which deity is represented?

Amitābha, a very popular Buddha in China and, later, Japan, is represented meditating on a lotus throne. He is flanked by two cartouches emerging from lotus flowers. The one on the right reads ‘Amitābha Buddha of the 48 vows’, while the one on the left means ‘Universal exhortation to worship and maintenance of the faith.’ According the Larger Sūtra of Immeasurable Light, Amitābha presides over the Pure Land, which is regarded as a stepping-stone towards enlightenment. One of the practices widely associated to him is the chanting of his name, with the belief that one will thus be reborn in his paradise.

Full title:
Printed Prayer Sheet with an illustration of Amitābha Buddha
c. 10th century, China
Woodblock-printed sheet
Usage terms
Public Domain
Held by
British Library
Or 8210/P.14

Related articles

Buddhist meditation and chant

Article by:
Sarah Shaw
Buddhism, Devotional texts

There are many kinds of Buddhist meditations; here Dr Sarah Shaw describes the ‘middle way’ of the Buddha and explores key aspects of Buddhist meditation and chant, such as the use of Buddha-images and visualisation.

Buddhism introduction

Article by:
The British Library

An overview of articles and British Library resources relating to Buddhism.

Related collection items