The Bundahishn, or Zoroastrian ‘Primal Creation’


The Bundahishn, or ‘Primal Creation’, is a Zoroastrian Pahlavi text on cosmogony and cosmography.

What is the manuscript about?

The Bundahishn is based on the Avesta and includes a detailed account of the supreme God Ohrmazd’s (Ahura Mazda) perfect creation, which was attacked by the evil spirit Ahriman (Angra Mainyu), and afflicted with disease and death. The cosmic drama culminates in the resurrection of the dead and the defeat and removal of evil from Ohrmazd’s world and its perfection at the end of time. The cosmographic parts of the text include descriptions of the world’s lands, rivers, lakes, mountains, plants animals and human races.

This manuscript

The Bundahishn is preserved in two distinct recensions, an Indian version and a more complete Iranian one. This manuscript gives the text of the Indian Bundahishn and is written in Pazand (Pahlavi written in a phonetic Avestan script).

Full title:
The Bundahishn (‘Primal Creation’)
17th or 18th century, India
Usage terms
Public Domain
Held by
British Library
Mss Avestan 22

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