In 1584, Reginald Scot – a country gentleman and MP from Kent – published The discoverie of witchcraft, a sceptical treatise recording and debunking popular and scholarly beliefs about witchcraft, magic and other superstitions. Scot argued that belief in magic was both irrational and un-Christian. He suggested non-magical reasons and causes for both magical phenomena and accusations of witchcraft. These included psychological and sociological causes. For example, Scot argued that the social tension and guilt felt by those who denied charity to poor women sometimes led the deniers to accuse these women of witchcraft. Scot maintained that those who had been accused and executed for witchcraft were innocent and blamed the Catholic Church for encouraging these superstitious beliefs.
The discoverie of witchcraft was very widely read in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. It was a central text in witchcraft debates and there were numerous challenges to Scot’s beliefs (not least from King James VI and I in his own book on witchcraft, Daemonologie) as well as a smaller number of defences. Because of the comprehensiveness of The discoverie of witchcraft, it was a useful source of information on supernatural beliefs and practices, regardless of whether the reader agreed with Scot’s scepticism or not. However, it is also important to note that Scot was not a folklorist researching and accurately recording popular beliefs for posterity; he was using these stories to support his own agenda of persuading the reader against belief in the supernatural.
It is widely believed that Shakespeare had read Scot and that the book is one possible source for the witches of Macbeth, the mock trial of King Lear, and for Bottom’s transformation and the hobgoblin character Puck or Robin Goodfellow in A Midsummer Night’s Dream.
- pp. 7–11: on witches
- pp. 85–86, 152–54: on Robin Goodfellow
- pp. 94–97: on transformation of men into asses
- pp. 408–10: a spell for invisibility
- p. 420: a diagram for summoning spirits
- Full title:
- The discoverie of witchcraft, Wherein the lewde dealing of witches and witchmongers is notablie detected
- 1584, London
- Book / Quarto / Illustration / Image
- Reginald Scot
- Usage terms
- Public Domain
- Held by
- British Library
- Article by:
- Liza Picard
- Magic, illusion and the supernatural, Shakespeare’s life and world, Elizabethan England, Tragedies
Liza Picard takes a look at witchcraft, magic and religion in Elizabethan England.
- Article by:
- Emma Smith
- Comedies, Magic, illusion and the supernatural
Having one actor play more than role was convenient for Shakespeare, whose acting company was limited in size, but doubling also enabled him to intensify the atmosphere of his plays, and to make connections and contrasts between scenes and storylines. Emma Smith explores the way that the doubling in A Midsummer Night's Dream heightens the play's dreamlike and fantastical elements.
- Article by:
- Carole Levin
- Tragedies, Shakespeare’s life and world, Magic, illusion and the supernatural
Did Shakespeare’s contemporaries believe in witches? Carole Levin looks at witchcraft trials in the 16th century and considers their relation to the ‘weird sisters’ of Macbeth.
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